A country of southern Asia covering most of the Indian subcontinent. Aryans from the northwest invaded c. 1500 B.C., pushing Dravidian and other peoples to the south. Most of India was unified by the emperor Asoka in the 3rd century B.C. It experienced a golden age in the 4th and 5th centuries A.D. before being invaded c. 1000 by Muslims and later by the Mongol conqueror Baber, who established the Mogul empire (1526–1857). Various European powers established trading posts in the 16th and 17th centuries, with the British assuming authority over India in 1857. In the 20th century civil unrest led by Mohandas Gandhi led to the independence of British India and its division (1947) into the separate Hindu and Muslim countries of India and Pakistan. New Delhi is the capital and Mumbai (Bombay) the largest city. Population: 1,080,000,000.
India, officially Republic of India, republic (2005 est pop. 1,080,264,000), 1,261,810 sq mi (3,268,090 sq km), S Asia. The second most populous country in the world, it is also sometimes called Bharat, its ancient name. India's land frontier (c.9,500 mi/15,290 km long) stretches from the Arabian Sea on the west to the Bay of Bengal on the east and touches Pakistan (W); China, Nepal, and Bhutan (N); Bangladesh, which forms an enclave in the northeast; and Myanmar (E). New Delhi is India's capital and Mumbai (formerly Bombay) its largest city.
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Facts and Figures about India
Name: Republic of India
Capital City New Delhi (10.8 million)
Currency: Indian Rupee (INR)
Languages: Hindi, Bengali and 13 other (official) languages, including Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit. Hindustani is widely spoken in the north, and English is, for the most part, the language of modern business.
National Day: January 26
Religions: Hindu (80%), Muslim (13%), others
Latitude/Longitude: (Capital City) 28º 37' N, 77º 13' E
India is in both the eastern and northern hemispheres. It's positioned on the Indian subcontinent in south-central Asia. It's bordered by the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Gulf of Mannar, Indian Ocean, and the countries of Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Burma (Myanmar).
Coastline: 4,350 miles (7,000 km)
Land Areas: (land) 1,147,955 sq miles (2,973,190 sq km) (water) 121,390 sq miles (314,400 sq km)(TOTAL) 1,269,345 sq miles (3,287,590 sq km); Highest Point: Kanchenjunga - 28,208 ft. (8,598 m); Lowest Point: Indian Ocean - 0 ft. (0 m)
Land formationa: The Himalayas form the highest mountain range in the world, and slope southward into a large fertile plain that covers much of India. Three mountain ranges extend from the Indus River in the northwest, to the Brahmaputra River in the east, including the Himadri, Himachal and Shivaliks - all with deep canyons gorged by the fast-flowing water. The land rises slightly into two plateaus, bordered in the central and south by lower mountains (Ghats), that gently slope into narrow coastal plains. Numerous rivers drain the land, and without question, the Ganges is the heartbeat of India and one of the most significant rivers on the planet.
Land Divisions 28 states, including Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, , Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhan, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, , Punjab and Rajasthan. In addition, there are 7 union territories; including Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra, Nagar Haveli, Daman, Diu, Delhi, Lakshadweep and Pondicherry.